1. A little history
The nation of Israel was divided into two at the end of the reign of Solomon in 930 a. C.:
I. The Kingdom of Israel (North) with its capital in Samaria
II. The Kingdom of Judah (South) with its capital in Jerusalem.
The Northern Kingdom was destroyed and its inhabitants carried into captivity by the Assyrian empire in 721. C.
The Kingdom of Judah continued until 607 BCE when Nebuchadnezzar conquered the whole region and carried the people away into Babylon:
… By then went up to Jerusalem Nevujadnetzar the servants of the king of Babylon, and the city was besieged … And he took all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all men of valor, ten thousand captives in total, and all the craftsmen and smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land … And the king of Babylon made Mataniahu, his father’s brother, king of the place and changed its name to Tzidkiahu. (Melachim-Kings-11 24:10-17)
In 537 B.C. under the rule of Cyrus, was authorized to return to Jerusalem of the Jews who so wish to do so, under the leadership of Nehemiah  and Ezra .
Since then the territory was a province that went from Empire to Empire unable to recover their identity as independent nation. But God had promised to Israel through his prophets: